The main objectives of the Council were twofold, although there were also other topics that were discussed: the history of the Council is therefore divided into three different periods: 1545-1549, 1551-1552 and 1562-1563. In the second period, the Protestants present called for a resumption of the discussion on already defined points and the release of the bishops from their oath of allegiance to the Pope. By the time the last period began, all intentions to reconcile the Protestants had disappeared and the Jesuits had become a powerful force. [2] This latter period began mainly as an attempt to prevent the formation of a General Council that included Protestants, as some in France had requested. The greatest weight in the decrees of the Council is given to the sacraments. The seven sacraments were affirmed and the Eucharist was pronounced as a true atonement and as a sacrament in which bread and wine were consecrated to the Eucharist (thirteenth and twenty-second sessions). The term transubstantiation was used by the Council, but the specific Aristotelian explanation of scholasticism was not cited as dogmatic. Instead, the decree states that Christ in consecrated forms is “truly, truly, essentially present.” The sacrifice of the Mass was to be offered to the dead and the living, and by commanding the apostles, “Do this in remembrance of me,” Christ gave them spiritual power. The practice of denying the cup to the laity has been confirmed (twenty-first session) as a practice offered by the Fathers of the Church for good and sufficient reasons; in some cases, however, the pope has been appointed supreme arbiter of whether the rule should be strictly adhered to. [11] With regard to the language of the Mass, the Council condemned “contrary to what is often said” the conviction that only vernacular languages should be used, while insisting on the use of Latin. [22] Pope Paul IV (1555-59) was against the Council, but it was reinstated by Pius IV (1559-65). The arrival of the French bishops raised the explosive question of the divine basis of the bishops` obligations to reside in their episcopal sees.

When peace was restored, the Council established that Christ is fully present in the Eucharist both in the consecrated bread and in the consecrated wine, but left it to the Pope to make the practical decision whether or not to grant the cup to the laity. She defined the Mass as a true sacrifice; publication of doctrinal statements on holy consecrations, marriage, purgatory, indulgences and veneration of saints, images and relics; and issued reform decrees on clerical morality and the establishment of seminaries. Justification (sixth session) was explained on the basis of human cooperation with divine grace[11] in contrast to the Protestant doctrine of passive reception of grace. The Council understood the Protestant doctrine of “faith alone” as a mere human trust in divine mercy and rejected the “vain trust” of Protestants, declaring that no one could know who had received God`s grace. Moreover, the Council affirmed – against some Protestants – that God`s grace can be lost through mortal sin. Although Germany demanded a general council after the excommunication of German Reformation leader Martin Luther, Pope Clement VII held back for fear of further attacks on his supremacy. France, too, preferred inaction for fear of increasing German power. However, Clement`s successor, Paul III, was convinced that Christian unity and effective reform of the Church could only be achieved through a council. After thwarting his first attempts, he convened a council at Trento (northern Italy), which was held on 13 September.

It was opened in 1545. Before military events forced a second adjournment of the Council, the delegates completed an important decree on the Eucharist that defined the real presence of Christ, contrary to the interpretation of Huldrych Zwingli, the leader of the Swiss Reformation, and the doctrine of transubstantiation as opposed to luther`s consubstantiation. The sacrament of penance was defined exhaustively, extreme anointing (later the anointing of the sick) was declared, and decrees were issued on episcopal jurisdiction and clerical discipline. German Protestants, on the other hand, called for a revision of all previous doctrinal decrees of the Council and wanted a statement that the authority of a Council is superior to that of the Pope. Council, Trento, Catholic, Central, Catholic, Council, Reformation, Christian, History, Seminaries, Important, Priests. The doctrinal acts are as follows: after the affirmation of the Nicene-Constantinopolitan creed (third session), the decree was adopted (fourth session), which confirmed that the deuterocanonical books were equal to the other books of the canon (against Luther`s placement of these books in the Apocrypha of his edition) and the coordination of the ecclesiastical tradition with Sacred Scripture as a rule of faith. .